# 4thTech Elements
# Smart Contracts
Smart contacts are essentially code or rules written into a digital program and were written to facilitate 4thTech unique requirements.
In the case of FOURdx, a smart contract executes the following:
- saving unique ID (e.g. represent a unique id of the data file);
- deliver links (i.e. represents a link of the data file);
- represent a name (i.e. represent the name of the data file);
- provide a description (i.e. represents a description of the data file).
In the case of FOURim, a smart contract executes the following:
- saving instant messages from the sender;
- retrieving instant messages from receivers.
In the case of FOUR STAKING, a smart contract executes the following:
- transferring tokens from sender to contract address;
- creating lock schedule metadata with locking details (e.g. token amount, lock period, transaction cost discount, etc);
- enable the transfer of tokens from contract to sender address once lock period is over.
🔗 GITHUB Link
A database is an organized collection of data, stored and accessed electronically. The 4thTech system contains three databases:
MySQLdatabase: storing user first name, last name, tax number (i.e. the data needed for digital identity verification using
X.509digital identity certificate standard), platform settings, user wallets,
RSApublic key for data encryption.
MySQLdatabase is protected with a firewall. Data exchanges are protected with an
HTTPSconnection. In the case of a user request, it is possible to delete any user-related data;
- local or cloud file repository: storing encrypted data files. In the case of a user request, it is possible to delete any user-related data;
- blockchain: encrypted message and timestamp of the send an instant message.
# Multi-Blockchain Interoperability
Multi-blockchain support enables transaction cost and speed choice, which is especially important when dealing with public blockchains. Next, to already supported
Ethereum, two additional blockchains were added, both chosen based on their uniqueness. The support for
HashNet protocol was added already in July 2020, while
Polkadot Substrate was added in v2.0.
HashNet DLT is a ground platform we find essential to building the application that can handle a high volume of transactions that are furthermore, fairly recorded and immutable, while the platform ensures valid, scalable usage which makes it perfect for Enterprise applications.
Edgeware is a high-performance, self-upgrading
WASM smart contract platform, in the
Polkadot ecosystem. It is a Substrate based blockchain built using the Rust programming language. Smart contracts are written in Ink! programming language. Ink! is a Rust-based
eDSL for writing Wasm smart contracts specifically for the Contracts module. Special logic was added into programing, which enables us to add additional blockchain support when needed.
Solana blockchain support was added in Q2 2021 with the aim to enable a secure affordable Layer 1 instant messaging solution. According to Solana.com,
Solana is the next generation censorship-resistant blockchain with over 500 validators, extreme transaction speeds and low cost, therefore perfect for Layer 1 on-chain instant messaging.
Solana leverages Proof of History and several other breakthrough innovations to allow the network to scale at the rate of Moore's Law.
4thTech uses hosted
Ethereum-node on Infura over
JSON-RPC protocol, to connect to the Ethereum node. In the case of
HashNet protocol, 4thTech uses Tolar Gateway which transforms JSON-RPC calls to
gRPC (i.e. universal RPC framework) calls to connect to the HashNet node. In the case of connecting to the
Solana node, 4thTech uses
# The FOURdx smart contracts in production
|Ethereum||0x82cebDEabB79FdFaB70649834ddD85f42b6B9464||Link (opens new window)|
|Edgeware||jM7MuqQNvUdg67hjf8g3WqB2VYEfWpojUsBpdsVT9uPBePU||Link (opens new window)|
4thTech has been up and running for the past three years. This time was also spent exploring and developing solutions in regards to project scalability.
In the case of 4thTech blockchain applications development, developed Docker containers will be integrated into Kubernetes clusters, which will enable the overall scalability and elasticity of the 4thTech systems.
# Security protocols
4thTech utilizes advanced encryption standard (i.e.
AES), with a combination of
RSA encryption and hash algorithm 256 (i.e.
SHA 256) to secure immutable data exchange. The data files are encrypted with a symmetric algorithm (i.e.
AES), as the asymmetric algorithm (i.e.
RSA) is used to encrypt the symmetric key and initialization vector (i.e.
IV) with the public key of the receiver.
4thTech encryption design does not allow an attacker to infer relationships between segments of the encrypted message.
SHA 256 is defined as one of the most secure ways to protect digital information.
SHA 256 is a mathematical process that generates a 256 bit (64 characters long) random sequence of letters and numbers (hash) out of any input. Secure hash algorithm 256 is used to calculate the file content hash value when executing an on-chain data file exchange transaction via smart contract.
# Tokenization Service
4thTech tokenization service (i.e.
- enables the monetisation of 4thTech transactions (i.e.
TX) and services through the use of cryptographic tokens;
- enables users to “fuel” the data file & metadata wallet to wallet exchange with system supported assets (
FOUR, ETH, EDG…);
- enables users to receive service fee discounts when staking FOUR;
- enables the right to access (i.e.
FOURstaking is needed to access FOURim).